Caesarius of Arles and the 10-no-12-no-13 Sermons

I’m on to something interesting here…

I’ve got in front of me five different ninth-century manuscripts that have a certain block of texts that are exactly the same—ten “homilies”, two sermons on the same topic, and a final sermon. The first 12 items are identified with Caesarius of Arles, the last is unspecified. What’s interesting is that these items are identified as being from Caesarius when they circulate together. Apart from one another they’re attributed to all sorts of other folks.

Very interesting.

Two of these manuscripts have this collection with the same two other sets of documents–a set of early monastic lives and Martin of Braga’s De Correctione. The ordering is different which makes me think that one was not copied directly from the other.

Right now, I’m not interested in who wrote these ten to thirteen sermons; instead, I’m chewing on why it seems important to the various copiests that they be associated with Caesarius. The answer that I’m leaning towards is that this sermon packet and especially the collection above may be seen as a set of primary source materials for a form of early non-Benedictine western monasticism…

Homilies and Homiliaries in the St Gall Collection

Perhaps the single best manuscript collection on the web in terms of breadth of material containing early medieval ecclesiastical stuff is the e-codices virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland. I took a crawl through it to find what sort of homilies and homiliaries it had hiding in it. Here’s what I came up with… (Note: my list follows search order, not shelf-mark order. I’ll try to rearrange it later.)

  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 558
    • This manuscript is from around 800 or sometime in the first part of the 9th century.  The 5 hands are early 9th cent. Carolingian.
    • Contents are varied but largely monastic in nature. That is, it begins with a collection of foundational lives, then moves to homilies of Caesarius of Arles and Ps-Caesarius entitled in the description as “Sermo ad Monachos”. The remaining material is fascinating but less explicitly monastic: Martin of Braga’s “De correctione rusticorum” which is substantially an overview of the Christian faith for catechetical and missionary purposes, then a  materials relating to St Michael, then a fragment of Ps-Chrysostom’s “Sermo de poenitentia.” It woulkd be very easy to envision this kind of collection as a book apportioned out during Lent to those who need either instruction or a refresher on the monastic vocation.
    • Jerome, Life of Paul the Hermit
    • Athanasius, Life of St Antony
    • Jerome, Life of Bl. Hilarion
    • Jerome, Life of St Malchus
    • Caesarius of Arles/Eusebius Gallicanus, 12 Sermons
    • Caesarius/Ps-Caesarius (2 sermons), On the 10 Virgins
    • Caesarius/Ps-Caesarius, Sermo ad Monachos
    • Martin of Braga, On the Correction of the Rustics
    • Verses on St Michael
    • Sermon on the Dedication of the Basilica of St Michael
    • Ps-Chrysostom, Sermon on Penitence
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 241
    • From the 9th century
    • This volume contains three books and a few extras. Written by two scribes of St Gall
    • Paterius, Book of Testimonies on the Old Testament (largely drawn from Gregory)
    • Jerome, Letters of Jerome and Damasus
    • Augustine, Homilies on John (Tractates?); 18 of the 124:  1-17, 20
    • The Athanasian Creed with explanations
    • The Lord’s Prayer with explanations
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 87
    • 9th century
    • Homilies of Origen on Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 423
    • 10 century
    • Homiliary. Defective at the beginning and end, and starts with what appears to be Maximus on the Assumption of the BCM, then goes to Holy Saturday; pg. 14 is titled “Night Readings begin from Easter to Advent”.
    • Needs investigation
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 579
    • 9th century
    • Written in a 9th century St Gall Carolingian
    • Contents are very similar to Cod. Sang. 558; monastically inclined. Note Caesarian sermon on 10 Virgins (Matt 25) again. What does he say in these two sermons?
    • Jerome, Life of Paul the Hermit
    • Athanasius, Life of St Antony
    • Jerome, Life of Bl. Hilarion
    • Jerome, Life of St Malchus
    • Martin of Braga, On the Correction of the Rustics
    • Caesarius of Arles/Eusebius Gallicanus, 12 Sermons
    • Caesarius/Ps-Caesarius (2 sermons), On the 10 Virgins
    • Caesarius/Ps-Caesarius, Sermo ad Monachos
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 99
    • 9th century
    • Ambrose, Homilies on Luke in 10 books
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 614
    • 9th-12th centuries
    • This is a complicated book with quite a number of different items. It begins with sermons, and moves to other maters from there, particularly the Ordines Romani
    • 12 sermons by Augustne/Caesarius of Arles/Remegius/Ps-Chrysostom
    • Hymn Fabrica Mundi
    • Christmas Sequence
    • Two Ps-Bede sermons for All Saints (Legimus is the first)
    • Abbots of St Gall
    • Ratpert: Various matters on St Gall
    • Excerpt of Canons of Ps-Remegius (liturgically inclined?)
    • Ordines Romani (I, II, XXIV, XXVI, III, XXVIII, XXII, XXVIII (more) XII, XXXVI, on papal vestments)
    • Ps-Amalarius, Ecgology on the Ordines Romani
    • Excerpts from Isidore (on liturgical topics)
    • Bernold of Constanz, Excerpts from the Micrologus
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 188
    • 7th century
    • Italian hand in Uncial
    • This is a compilation with two main parts:
    • 106 sermons by Maximus of Turin
    • Ambrose, On the Sacraments (defective)
    • 3 anonymous sermons
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 431
    • 3rd quarter of the 9th century
    • written in Carolingian minuscule by one hand
    • This is a homiliary that covers the second half of the winter season. The capitulary lists 42 homilies from Septuagesima through the Wednesday of Holy Week; according to the description, the manuscript includes 60 and goes through Good Friday
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 430
    • 3rd quarter of the 9th century
    • written in Carolingian minuscule by one hand
    • This is a homiliary that covers the first half of the winter season. The description states that there are 105 sermons that run from Advent through the Annunciation.
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 211
    • 3rd quarter of the 9th century
    • written in Carolingian minuscule
    • Gregory the Great, Homilies on Ezekiel, 1-22
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 103
    • 9th century
    • by various hands
    • John Chrysostom (Ps-?), book of homilies
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 194
    • Middle of 8th century
    • pre-Caroline minuscule written probably at St Gall
    • Palimpsest with sermons written over top the Books of Solomon and a sacramentary. Upper text has sermons of Caesarius and excerpts from Isidore
    • Caesarius of Arles, homilies
    • Isidore, Excerpts from Entym. Book II
  • Schaffhausen, Ministerialbibliothek, Min. 45
    • 11th century
    • Carolingian minuscule written in various hands
    • Palimpsest with homilies by Gregory over top a Gospel-book in Insular majuscule and minuscule
    • Gregory the Great, Homilies on Ezekiel 1-12
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 454
    • 2nd half of 9th/1st half of 10th century
    • classic St Gall Caroline writing
    • A martyrology with extras
    • Ado of Vienna, Martyrology
    • Cyprian, 2 Epistles
    • Passions of the Saints
    • Letter of Ps-Ignatius
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 425
    • 10th century
    • written in various hands
    • Homiliary containing 32 sermons for the time from Christmas through the 2nd Sunday in Lent. Named authors are Ambrosius 1, Augustinus 1, Beda 11, Eusebius 1, Fulgentius 1, Gregory 5, Leo  2, Maximus 2, Origenes 3, and 5 without names
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 1394
    • various
    • various
    • This manuscript is a collection of a whole lot of little bits of manuscripts. The only homily in it (for Palm Sunday) is at the very end–but it’s glossed in Old German from the 11th century
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 432
    • 2nd half of the 9th century
    • small Carolingian minuscule by various hands
    • Homiliary for Summer containing 146 sermons from Easter to the beginning of Advent. Also includes Commons for Saint, Martyrs, and Church Dedications. There’s a further odd collection for various liturgical occasions both in and outside of this period at the end
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 433
    • 3rd quarter of the 9th century
    • Carolingian minuscule by several hands
    • Homiliary for saints’ days, both common and proper
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibiothek , Cod. Sang. 553
    • 9th or 10th century
    • written by 8 hands in St Gall Carolingian
    • Lives of the saints of St Gall and a sermon
    • Jonas, Life of St Columbanus
    • 2 hymns to St Columbanus
    • Jonas, Life of Athala
    • Jonas, Life of Bertholf
    • Jonas, On the Monks of Bobbio
    • Homily for reading on festivals of St Gall (adapted from Bede’s sermon on St Benedict)
    • Genealogies of the venerable Gall, Brigida, and Patrick
    • Wettus, Life of St Gall
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 561
    • 9th/10th and 11th centuries
    • various hands
    • This is a three-part manuscript; the first section has passions of the apostles and some early martyrs as well as an exaltation of the cross. The second has sermons on the Blessed Virgin Mary  from Ps-Ambrose and Bede. Too there is a sermon from (Ps-)Bede on All Saints and responsories for All Saints ostensibly by Bede. The third part has fragments of a breviary from Christmas
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 571
    • 9th and 11th/12th centuries
    • St Gall Carolingian
    • Lives of early Church and Frankish saints. Includes a sermon for the feast of St Remaclus by John Chrysostom
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 204
    • First quarter of the 11th century
    • Carolingian minuscule written by two hands
    • Gregory the Great, Forty Gospel Homilies
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 434
    • Third quarter of the 9th century
    • carolingian minuscule by one hand
    • Homiliary covering from the 2nd Sunday after Pentecost through the 26th Sunday after Pentecost
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 125
    • between 770-780
    • small German minuscule with glosses by several hands
    • A collection of mostly patristic materials
    • Jerome, On the Four Gospels
    • Jerome, Homily on Matthew
    • Jerome, Homily on St Joseph
    • Gregory the Great, Excerpts from the homilies
    • Isidore, Excerpts
    • Excerpts from selected Fathers
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsarchiv, Handschriften der Abtei Pfäfers, Cod. Fab. II
    • 11th century
    • Carolingian minuscule in various hands
    • The homilies of Gregory book-ended by selections from Eusebeus and interrupted by the blessing of the paschal lamb
    • Gregory the Great, Forty Gospel Homilies

On Early Medieval Monasticism for Understanding Western Patristics

Initial Disclaimer

These are some thoughts that have been rolling around in my head for quite a while and have gelled as I prepare for my dissertation defense and consider my on-going course of study and research. I don’t think I’m saying anything new here; in fact, somebody in one of the fields that touches on mine may have already said this in a more lucid form (perhaps it’s lurking in de Lubac) and if so I’d love to be directed to it.

The Main Thought

Understanding early medieval monasticism, its goals and means of theological transmission, is crucial for understanding the spread, development, and impact of the study of the Church Fathers on the Western Church.  Without understanding the monks, you miss the ways that they shaped and directed how the West encountered the Fathers.

Unpacking That A Bit

The Church Fathers, those bishops and teachers who led the Church for the first five or so centuries, wrote widely and variously. That is, we have a wide variety of genres (the most common being homilies, letters, disputations [especially against heretics of various stripes], and treatises). Note the nature of the first three—these are fundamentally occasional genres; they address a particular situation in the life of a particular church although they may well have larger implications.

I debate whether to put “commentaries” on the list. Many of the commentaries that we know are not commentaries in a modern sense but, rather, are homilies grouped and arranged—sometimes within the author’s lifetime and by their hand, sometimes afterward and by another.

My central point here is that the majority of patristic writings are occasional as opposed to systematic; we lack syntheses from the early period. The closest would be some of the catechetical writings of Cyril, Ambrose, and Augustine.

The early medieval monks in their process of copying manuscripts began the important work of synthesis necessary to grasp and communicate the fullness of the occasionally oriented patristic wisdom. Key early figures who I would point to as central in this transition would be Cassiodorus, John Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, and Gregory the Great.

The synthetic task consists of two major components with a common source: selecting key works that lead to 1) amalgamating similar or common thoughts and emphases and 2) creating secondary works built from selections of primary works. The first may be found in the treatises and homilies of the early medieval monastics, the second in their homiliaries (taking that category broadly) that then flowed into glosses. At the root, though, is the initial selection of sources.

Picking up the second in particular, I remain convinced that most patristic wisdom in the West came through the early homiliaries, reaching fixed form in the works of Paul the Deacon’s homiliary and Smaragdus’s catena on the Gospels and Epistles. I believe that a study of existing manuscripts will bear this out. That is, few monasteries and cathedrals owned many volumes of patristic writings, rather, they may have owned a few—a treatise or two by Augustine, Gregory’s Gospel Homilies and Letters—but obtained most of their patristic learning from the homiliaries as transmitted in the Night Office and in holy reading.

Paul the Deacon’s homiliary, especially with the support of the Carolingian court, became the standard collection that formed the heart of the breviary tradition up to Vatican II. This point is argued and documented by Smetana. Thus the items included in Paul the Deacon, supplemented by Smaragdus, became the most widely distributed and most widely known and therefore the most widely cited patristic texts. Smetana argues this, IIRC, but does not marshal the data to demonstrate it.

I don’t have data to demonstrate it yet either, but knowing the ways in which Ælfric and Haymo used Paul the Deacon and Smaragdus in creating their own synthetic homilies, I do believe that it can be shown (especially given new collations of manuscript data and placement as in Godden’s recent work on Anglo-Saxon libraries).

Thus Paul the Deacon is single-handedly responsible for the selection of patristic texts that most educated members of the Western Church learned. Furthermore, Paul incorporated a number of monastic synthetics; Gregory and Bede are at the core of his homiliary. Their own selections and syntheses further concentrated the patristic streams and themes transmitted to later periods.

Both the Scholastic period and the Renaissance re-discovered certain patristic writings, working them back into the western church. Nevertheless, this rediscovery was always in relation to the Tradition’s core synthesized and transmitted by the monastics and the breviary.

The Final Pay-Off

Thus, the early medieval monastic movement is responsible for selecting and fore-grounding particular issues, themes, and authors that have come to represent the main lines of patristic thought to the modern Western Church.

After a Long Silence…

The dissertation is now wrapping up and, perhaps more importantly for this site, I’ve just received notice that I’ll be presenting at October’s PMR conference at Villanova.

I’ll be doing an in-depth look at structural units in Gregory’s homilies in a presentation entitled: “A Compositional Taxonomy for Gregory the Great’s Forty Gospel Homilies.” Now, does that sound exciting or what!

(Yes, I know, “…or what”)

In any case, I hope to be doing some of my research in public here in order both to engage in some dialogue (I hope) and to raise awareness about the place and importance of these homilies for the whole of the Western homiletical tradition.

Textual Parallels: Answering Jonathan

I’m getting back to the point that Jonathan raised on the post below. I keep exploring the issue of how to look at and construct parallels from a number of angles and as I consider a new project I’m embarking on (or will if my PMR abstract is accepted) I’ve got some more thoughts.

Jonathan’s defending paper parallels, And let me say, I am a fan of apaper parallels, and believe strongly that students of the New Testament and preachers need to own a copy of Throckmorton’s Gospel Parallels and be well versed in its use.

That having been said, I’m thinking about stages in a research project. There are some points where a static parallel is handy; others when it is less so. That is, as you go, you starting noticing things that require different different kinds of parallel examination that you wouldn’t have realized without the prior work.

I’m getting more and more keen on XML and the potential it offers for introducing markup into a text as you go. As I’m envisioning it, once you have uniform markup in a certain constellation of texts, different XSLT configurations could be used to display different kinds of parallels—or parallels within the same text given the right kinds of controls.

If the PMR presentation does get accepted I’ll try and put this into practice and see how well it works.

Textual Parallels

I’m working on a couple of projects right now that involve textual parallels.

To put it simply, I’ve become dissatisfied with the parallel colums thing. Isn’t there a better way to do this?

I mean think about it… The use of parallel columns was old technology when Codex Bezae(NT Uncial D)  had a facing page Latin/Greek text of the New Testament. Even then folks in Late Antiquity got that it didn’t work well, especially not for really big texts. Like, say, comparing the four gospels.

The point of Bezae, of course, was not to offer a parallel for the study of both texts. Rather, it was so either a Greek or Latin reader could read the Scriptures and someone who was competent in both could read both and make of the differences whatever they would.

The first serious system for studying the parallels between the Four was Ammonius and we honestly know nothing about his system. What we do have is the improvement on his work by Eusebius. Eusebius’s system is the single best piece of analytical scholarship of the Gospels to come out of the Patristic period and that’s no exaggeration. All scholars of Late Antiquity and the Early Medieval period whose work touches even tangentially on the Gospels needs to know this system. Period.

Here’s what his system does:

  1. The entire text of all four gospels are divided into numbered sections, each gospel being numbered sequentially from one up to however many divisions it takes. Where divisions begin and end depend on where parallels exist or do not exist. In other words, there are some sections in didatic material in the Synoptics that contain half of a modern verse; in some parts of John, a section can span several printed pages. (Remember, too, that no uniform chapter or verse system existed until the thireenth century. As a result all Latin lectionary lists that I know identify where the reading starts by reference to the Eusebian canon in which the incipit appears.)
  2. Thirteen numbered tables stand at the head of the gospels numbered from I to X with four instances of X. Each of the tables reflects a set of relationships going from the most complex to the most simple. Thus, Table I displays the sections where all four gospels share material that Eusebius decided was common to them all. Thus this table has four columns, one for each gospel, and numbers indicating to which section you should refer in each to find the parallel. Duplicates appear in the table indicating that some portions have more than one parallel—especially in cases where a bit in the Synoptics has several Johannine parallels.  Then tables II-IV have commonalities across three gospels (II: the Synoptics [Mt, Mk, Lk]; III: Mt, Lk, Jo; IV: Mt, Mk, Jo) and tables V-IX have commonalities across two (a key one being table V: Q [Mt, Lk]). Lastly, each gospel has a table X where passages unique to that gospel may be found.
  3. Within the text of the gospels themselves, most gospel books contain a marginal reference indicating the table and the parallels. Thus you may see a number indicating the division and then (perhaps in red) a numeral from I to X. If the number is a “I” it will have at least three other numbers, sometimes with a sigil identifying the gospel.
  4. The mechanics of the table are explained in Eusebius’s letter to Carpanius which is frequently found in Greek manuscripts;  Jerome explains it in the famous Letter to Damasus beginning “Novum Opus” which stands at the had of most Latin gospel manuscripts.

I look at this and recognize it instantly; it’s an ancient database.

So—given databases, mark-up, hyper-text, et al., which is the more excellent way: Bezae’s path or Eusebius’s?

Old Latin vs. Vulgate: Helpful Hint

If you ever have occasion to work with a Latin Gospel-book (or other gospel-containing text) and wonder if you’re dealing with the Old Latin or the Vulgate–not an uncommon issue in the early Insular world–here’s a tip:

Check Matthew’s Beatitudes (In the margin it’ll be marked as Eusebian division 25 or perhaps Ch. 11 in one of the more common schemes.)

  • The Vulgate uses Beati (blessed)
  • The Old Latin uses Felix (happy)

Furthermore, keep an eye on the order of the makarisms–most Latin translations reverse  Greek vss 4 and 5. Thus, “the meek (mites)” ought to be before “those who mourn (qui lugent)”. If that’s not the case–you’ve got something unusual on your hands… (If it’s a transcription, then regard the transcriber with suspicion!)

Aelfric on Lent 1 and Exeter’s Vainglory

The more I consider Aelfric’s sermon on Lent 1 (CH I.11), the more I’m struck by its similarities to Vainglory from the Exeter Book.

  • We have two characters in both that are identified as sons of the Devil and God. (Well, ok, the devil isn’t his own son so that doesn’t quite work…)
  • The Devil is confused as to Jesus’ identity precisely because he is not a gluttony, drunkard, nor luster.
  • The boasting behavior of the drunkard in Vainglory is highlighted just as boasting is a major feature of the second temptation in Aelfric’s homily.
  • The boaster, due to his ofermod is explicitly connected with the Devil and his army who tried to overthrow God in a fit of ofermod.
  • The chief attribute of the opposing character in Vainglory is his humility for which he gains the title of God’s own son; likewise, humility (as the preeminent monastic virtue) is Christ’s chief characteristic for Aelfric.

I’m not positing dependence, of course, (and I need to read the intro to the Rule of Chrodegang…) it’s just fascinating how the connections come together.

I must remember to do a lit search to see what others have written on this connection…

Genesis and Responsories: A Concise Summary

In five previous posts, I have been investigating the relationship between responsories and the continuous reading of Scripture as it appears in the early medieval monastic Night Office.

I began with Ælfric’s legislation in the Letter to the Monks at Eynsham concerning the beginning of the continuous reading cycle:

“In Septuagesima we should read Genesis until mid-Lent and we sing the history ‘Alleluia: While it is present’ [Alleluia dum praesens est (CAO 6071)] first and for one day only, and for the week as a whole we sing the responsories from the psalms, ‘O how great is the multitude’ [Quam magna multitudo (CAO 7459)] and so forth. Then, in other weeks, we sing what is found in the antiphoner. But from mid-Lent we read Exodus and sing ‘The Lord said to Moses’…” (Christopher Jones, LME, 144-5)

So—what exactly do we find if we follow his advice and find out “what is found in the antiphoner”? I selected a fairly typical Benedictine antiphoner contemporary with Ælfric, the St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 390.

I found that in the six Sundays contained within the period allotted by Ælfric to Genesis, two of them focused on the start of liturgical seasons (Septuagesima and Quadragesima/Lent 1); the other four did indeed provide an interpretive framework for the Genesis text.

Each Sunday tended to group around a patriarch or two in the following fashion:

It’s worth noting that the grand majority of the responsories are taken directly from Scripture. Or—perhaps it’s more accurate to say that they are composed largely from Scriptural materials. For rarely is a verse utilized “as is”; bits of verses are stitched into one another to create a larger Scriptural pastiche which is typically literally faithful to its source but the very act of recomposition enables it to say something other and something more than the original words in the original context.

While individual verses and verse clusters are chosen from these narratives they are in no way chosen at random. They have been carefully chosen and the selections fit together into a precis of the narrative shaped by the liturgists’ own interpretations of the text. For instance, we note that the responsories focus fundamentally on the patriarchs. Obedience seems to be a central theme. The Fall narrative is shaped around it to the point of added in extrabiblical language. Doing so forms a parallel with authentic biblical language praising obedience in the Abraham narrative. Other themes also run through the selections; blessing in particular seems a predominate motif.  I’m sure further study would reveal others.

The upshot here is that when we consider early medieval materials that interact with, summarize or communicate Scripture—especially in broad narrative sweeps—it makes sense to pay attention to the responsories used to interpret those texts when they appear within the monastic Night Office.

Genesis and Responsories, Cont.: Lent 3

Continuing along with early medieval monastic responsories sung alongside the continuous reading of Genesis…

Videntes Joseph a longe (CAO 7863)
R: Seeing Joseph from far off, his brothers spoke among themselves saying, “Behold, here comes the dreamer. Come, Let us kill him and see if his dreams predicted this.”
V: And when Joseph was seen by his brothers—for he was loved by their father more than all of the others—they hated him, nor was anyone able to speak peacefully to them, thus they said; “Come, Let us kill him…”
Source: Gen 37:18-20.

Dixit Judas fratribus suis: Ecce (CAO 6477)
R: Judah said to his brothers, “Behold, Ishmaelites are passing by; come, let us sell him and not pollute our hands. Indeed, he is our flesh and our brother.”
V: When Ruben went out to the well and did not find him, tearing his clothes and going to his brothers he said, “The boy is not present; and where will I go?”; “Indeed, he is our flesh…”
Source: Gen 37:26-27, 29-30.

Videns Jacob vestimenta Joseph (CAO 7858)
R: Jacob, seeing the garment of Joseph, tore his clothes with tears saying, “A wild beast has devoured my son, Joseph.”
V: “See if this is the garment of your son or not;” and when the father saw it, he said: “A wild beast…”
Source: Gen 37:34a, 33, 32b.

Joseph, dum intraret (CAO 7037)
R: Joseph, when he entered into the land of Egypt heard a tongue that he did not understand; his hands worked at their labor, and his tongue spoke wisdom among the leaders.
V: His back was turned away from burdens. His hands worked…
Source: VgPs 81:6-7

Memento mei dum bene (CAO 7144)
R: “Remember me when it is well with you that you might suggest to Pharaoh that he lead me forth from this prison, for I am suffering under a trick and was sent innocent into the pit.”
V: “Indeed after three days, Pharaoh will recall your ministering and will restore you to your former position—then remember me. Suggest to Pharaoh”
Source: Gen 40:12b,13, 14. (Joseph prophesying to the cup-bearer)

Tollite hinc vobiscum munera (CAO 7769)
R: “Take these presents with you, and go to the lord of the land; and when you find him, prostrate yourselves upon the ground. May my God make you favorable to him and he may send back both your brother with you and he who is held in chains.”
V: “Take the fruit of the earth in your vessels and offer to the man presents. May my God make you favorable…”
Source: Gen 43:11, 14. (Israel telling his sons to go to Egypt to buy food from the incognito Joseph)

Iste est frater vester minimus (CAO 6999)
R: “Is this your youngest brother of whom you told me? God have mercy on you, my son!” And he hurried into the house and wept, because he broke out in tears and was not able to contain them.
V: But Joseph, lifting up his eyes, saw Benjamin standing there; his whole body was moved on account of his brother. And he hurried into the house…
Source: Gen 43:29b, 30, 29a. (Joseph reunited with his youngest brother.)

Dixit Ruben fratribus suis (CAO 6480)
R: Ruben said to his brothers, “Did I not say to you, ‘Do not sin against the boy’?—but you did not listen to me. His blood is required.”
V: “We deserve to suffer this, because we sinned against our brother seeing his anguish when he supplicated us but we did not hear him. His blood is required.”
Source: Gen 42:22, 21. (Ruben & brothers after their initial hardships in Egypt at the hand of Joseph.)

Merito haec patimur, quia peccavimus (CAO 7146)
R: “We deserve to suffer this, because we sinned against our brother seeing his anguish when he supplicated us but we did not hear him. For this reason tribulation has come upon us.”
V: Ruben said to his brothers, “Did I not say to you, ‘Do not sin against the boy’?—but you did not listen to me. For this reason tribulation has come upon us.”
Source: Gen 42:21, 22. (Ruben & brothers after their initial hardships in Egypt at the hand of Joseph.)

Dixit Joseph undecim fratribus (CAO 6476)
R: Joseph said to his eleven brothers, “I am Joseph whom you sold into Egypt. Does our old father still live about whom you have told me? Go, bring him to me that he might live.”
V: “For two years the famine has been in the land; it will yet remain another five. Go, bring him to me…”
Source: Gen 45:4b, 3, 6.

Nuntiaverunt Jacob dicentes (CAO 7251)
R: They announced it to Jacob saying, “Your son Joseph lives and he himself rules over the whole land of Egypt,” upon hearing his spirit was revived and he said, “It is enough for me. I will go and I will see him before I die.
V: And when Jacob heard that his son was alive, as if waking from a deep sleep said: “It is enough for me…”
Source: Gen 45:26a, 27b-28, 26b.

Salus nostra in manu tua est (CAO 7559)
R: “Our salvation is in your hands, lord. May your mercy rest upon us that we may serve you in quietness.”
V: “May your soul live, lord, that we may not see death, nor our little ones be wanting. that we may serve you in quietness.”
Source: I know of no direct citations here. The language could fit either monastics imploring Christ or the brothers imploring Joseph, especially given an alternate verse form: “They also came to Egypt to Joseph saying, ‘Give us food that we might live'” [found in Hesbert’s GDFL].

Here we clearly have a Joseph set but it’s constructed in such a way to bring out two parallel texts. First, it harkens back to the Cain and Abel story, particularly with the themes of death and pollution by blood in Dixit Judas fratribus suis: Ecce (CAO 6477), Dixit Ruben fratribus suis (CAO 6480), and
Merito haec patimur, quia peccavimus (CAO 7146).

Second, Joseph appears as a very pronounced type of Christ. The innocent, beloved above others by the father, is set upon by his sinful brothers. His innocence is put in direct connection with three days in bondage. Even Joseph’s title dominus terrae [referenced in Tollite hinc vobiscum munera (CAO 7769)] sounds remarkably Christological in this setting. The repetition of the brothers’ confession in
Dixit Ruben fratribus suis (CAO 6480) and
Merito haec patimur, quia peccavimus (CAO 7146) is entirely appropriate in a Lenten setting and the connection between the brothers’ sins against Joseph and the contemporary hearers’ sins against Christ would not be missed. The last responsory in particular containing plausible pseudo-dialogue between the brothers and Joseph reveals how many of the exchange map onto both Joseph and Christ.

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